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MS. Reena Singh 
(Research Scholar)
Dr.Bhim Rao Ambedkar university, Agra
Modern information and communication technology have creator a “Global Village” in which place can communicate with other across the world. ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affect society. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a key factor in the future development of services industry including banking, transport, logistics, and retailing industries. Globalization has pushed the use of technology as a necessity in various business and economic functions. Information communication technology at present are influencing every aspect of human life. They are playing roles in works places, business, education, and entertainment. The world is changing new information and communication technologies are powerful contributors to this change . The development, advancement, and implementation of Information Communication Technologies  within today’s ever-changing society profoundly impacts the way we lead our lives. The effects of these pervasive technologies present both a challenge and an opportunity for researchers, educators, and students worldwide. The development and convergence of computer and communication technologies; jointly termed as information and communication technologies(ICT) has affected almost all aspects of human life.
Information technology “evolved in the 1970s. Its basic concept ,however, can be traced to the world war II alliance of the military and industry in the development of electronics, computer and information theory. After the 1940s,  the military remained the major source of research and development funding for the expansion of automation to replace manpower with machine power.
Information and communication technologies for development refer to the application of information and communication technologies(ICT) towards social, economic, and political development, with a particular emphasis on helping poor and marginalized people and communities. ICT for development is grounded in the notions of “development, growth, progress and globalization and is often interpreted as the use of technology to deliver a greater good.
Information and communication refers to technologies that provide access to information through Telecommunication. It is similar to information Technology but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless network, Cell phone, and other communication medium. For example: people can communicate in real time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice and video conferencing , social networking website like face both allow users from all over the world to remain in contract and communicate on a regular basis.  ICT is one of the wonderful gifts of modern science and technology which brought tremendous changes in library and information science.  It has opened up a new chapter in library communication and facilitated global access to information crossing the geographical limitations. ICT has a profound effect on the progress and development of human civilization. The tools used in ICT include computer programs, databases, communication networks, analysis and design methods programming languages, artificial intelligence, knowledge bases, etc. ICT has long-standing influence in almost all areas of human activity. The ICT products are helpful to store, retrieve, manipulate and transmit information electronically. Information and communication technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. The libraries are also changing their role to meet the demand of users for retrieving desired information which was not possible by the means of traditional libraries. Today ICT is generally understood to encompass both equipment and services that facilitate the electronic capture, processing, display and transmission of information.
What is ICT -: 
The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, and management.  communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and appliance with them such as video conferencing and distance learning. Information Communication Technology is a common term referring to the technologies used for collecting, storing, editing and communicating information .ICT means the use of computer-based technology and the Internet to make information and communication services available in a wide range of users. ICT Isa Hardware and Software that enable society to create, collect, consolidate and communicate information in a multimedia format and for various purposes. The term ICT includes any communication device or application, encompassing, radio, TV, cellular phones, computers and network, hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and application associated with them. ICT is playing a vital role in the current and future development of society and nation. ICT has affected all spheres of life and also the library. Information and communication technology is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store and manage information. Information and communications technology (ICT) refers to all the technology used to handle telecommunications, broadcast media, intelligent building management systems, audiovisual processing and transmission systems, and network-based control and monitoring functions.
Definition -:
According to the Encyclopedia of Computer Science, “Information Communication Technology (ICT) is an imprecise term frequently fundamental to broad areas of technologies and associated with the use of computers and communications”.
According to UNESCO “ICT is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline and management techniques used in handling information and application and  social, economical and cultural matters”.
Advantages of ICT –
Globalization – Video conferencing saves money on flights and accommodation. ICT has not only brought the countries and people closer together, but it has allowed the worlds economy to be become a single interdependent system to contact either a business to make them exceptionally cost effective.
Cost effectiveness – The feels free to send an email and without doubt cheaper than phone calls. ICT has also helped to automate business practices, to make them exceptionally cost effective.
More Time – You may have your goods delivered right to your doorstep with having to move a single muscle by clicking the items to be purchased via internet and making payment electronically.
Creation of new jobs- The best advantage of ICT has been the creation of new activate and interesting job. Computer programmers, system, hardware, and software developers and web designers are some of the many new employment opportunities created with the help of IT.
Education – Computer’s along with their programs and the internet have created educational opportunities not available to previous generations. A degree can be completed online from person’s home. it is possible to hold a job and still do degree.
Disadvantages of ICT –
Blackmail – Using the internet to threaten to cause damage with the intent to extort from any person any money or other thing of value.
Unemployment- Using the computer instead of human resources employers are save huge amount of money but employees are losing their jobs as not needed anymore.
Privacy – Information technology may have made communication fast and more convenient, it has also brought along privacy problem. From cell phone signal interception to email hacking, about their once private information becoming public knowledge.
Computer virus- worms, Trojan, malware, spam any or all can chaos and disrupt our daily lives.
Social media- They became addicted to the phones, IPod, gaming consoles forgetting about outside activities and communication in the society.
Components of ICT-
Computer Technology-
A complete history of computing would include a multitude of diverse devices such as the ancient Chinese abacus, the Jacquard loom (1805) and Charles Babbage's ``analytical engine'' (1834). It would also include discussion of mechanical, analog and digital computing architectures. As late as the 1960s, mechanical devices, such as the Marchant calculator, still found widespread application in science and engineering. During the early days of electronic computing devices, there was much discussion about the relative merits of analog vs. digital computers. In fact, as late as the 1960s, analog computers were routinely used to solve systems of finite difference equations arising in oil reservoir modeling. In the end, digital computing devices proved to have the power, economics and scalability necessary to deal with large scale computations. Digital computers now dominate the computing world in all areas ranging from the hand calculator to the supercomputer and are pervasive throughout society. Therefore, this brief sketch of the development of scientific computing is limited to the area of digital, electronic computers. Computer technology has undergone tremendous changes in both hardware and software capabilities. To examine computer equipment and facilities its past and present, one most look at the applications that have influenced their progress. Today, everyone is compelled to understand capabilities, limitations and potential application of computers in their respective areas of specialization to cope up with the increasing demands of modern society.
Use of Computer :
  • Education
  • Health and medicine
  • Science
  • Business
  • Entertainment
  • Government
  • Defence
  • Transport
  • Characteristics of computer:
  • Speed
  • Logical operations
  • Accuracy
  • Reliability
  • storage
  • Automation
  • Versatility
  • No feeling

Network Technology – 
Networking technology allows for the exchange of data between large and small information systems used primarily by businesses and educational institutions. Networking, end-users are able to transmit files, messages and other data through e-mail or various other channels, sharing information through internet connection, based on the needs of an organization.  Network technology is the use of connected systems either via optic cable, satellite, wireless connections to relay various data, communication and resource in different part of the world.
ARPANET-The first network
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The granddad of internet was a network established by the US Department of Defense. The work for establishing the network started in the early 1960s and DOD sponsored major research work, languages and framework for network communication. The main devices that help in building the work are: 
  • Computer
  • Network interface
  • Media
  • Switches
  • Routers
Network Types :- Based on geographically area covered, there are three types of networks:
Local area network (LAN)- LAN are the most frequently discussed networks. LANs connect group of computers and low-voltage devices together across short distances to share information and resources.
Metropolitan area network (MAN)- It provides interconnection of network in a city into single network. MANs span an entire geographic area typically a town or city, but sometimes a campus.
Wide area network(WAN)- It covers large geographical area having state or countries. The internet is the most basic example of a WAN, connecting all computers together around the world.
Types of network in use Today :
  • Personal area network
  • Wireless local area network
  • Campus area network
  • Enterprise private network
Communication Technology – 
Information and communication technology has become a revolutionary cornerstone in the education world today. We also use information communication technology in our every day work.  Information communication technology in India was started under the national secondary education campaign which was started in December 2004. The word communication has it origin in the English language word communication. Which is made up of Latin-language Communist. The best medium of communication is our voice and language. Information technology has made communication much easier. Internet is the most used in this. Through the internet, we can exchange information anytime and in a short time. The word  communication means establishing a commonality between the sender and the receiver. In the words, communication is an effort through which  a person participates in another person’s thoughts, feeling and attitudes. The basis of communication is ‘communication’ and communication.
Communication in Ancient Times : The first means of communication was, the human voice but about 3,200Bc writing was invented in Iraq.
Communication 1500-1800 : The next major improvement in communication was the invention of printing. The first newspaper were printed in the 17th century. The first newspaper in England was printed in 1641.
Communication in the 19thCentury :The telegraph was invented in 1837.Alexander Graham bell invented the telephone in 1876. The first telephone directory in London was published in 1880.The first telephone line from Paris to Brussels was established in 1887.
Communication in the 20th Century : Communication continued to improve in the 20th century. In the 1990s new radio stations included Radio5 live 1990 and Classic FM1991. Television was invented in 1925 by john logie baird and the BBC began regular, high definition broadcasting in 1936.Martin cooper invented the first handheld first cell phone in 1973. The first mobile phone call in Britain was made in 1985. In Britain smart phone were introduced in 1996.
Communication in the 21st century : 21st century the internet became an important form of communication. Today email has become one of the most popular methods of communication.
Communication Process  – In order to better understand the communication process ;
Source(Sender) –Sender or the communication generates the message and convey it to the receiver.
Message – The message or content is the information that sender wants to relay to the receiver. All three elements together- sender, receiver and ,message and you have the communication process at its most basic.
Media – The medium of communication includes telephone, post, fax, e-mail, etc. The choice of medium is decided by sender.
Receiver – he is the person who is last in the chain and for whom the message was sent by the sender.
Telecommunication – 
The history of telecommunication began with use of  smoke signals and drums in Africa, the Americas and parts of Asia. 1830 that electrical telecommunication system started to appear. Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, message, words, writings, images, and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. The word telecommunication comes from the Greek prefix Tele, which means distant, combined with the Latin word communication, which means to share. Telecommunication technologies include the telegraphy, telephone, radio, television, video telephony, satellite, closed computer networks and public internet. Early telecommunication transmission used analog signals, which were transferred over copper wires. Today, telephone and cable companies still use these same lines, though most transmission are now digital. Telecommunication wiring is done with cables that are optimized for digital communication, Such as fiber optic cables and digital phone lines. Telecommunication is a universal term that is used for a vast range of information- transmitting technologies such as mobile phones, landlines, VoIP and broadcast networks.
Types of telecommunication ;
E-mail- Electronic mail is a method of exchanging message between people using electronic devices. Invented by ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960 and by the mid-1970 had taken the form now recognized as email.
Fax – The first fax machine was invented by Scottish mechanic and inventor Alexander Bain. A fax machine is a device that is used to send documents electronically over a telephone network. Today’s fax machine is less frequently a stand-alone machine and more often part of  a multifunction unit that also has printing, scanning and copying features.
Telephony- Alexander graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876. A telephone also called phone is a communication tool. Using a telephone, two people who are in different places can talk to each other.
Television broadcasting- The world’s first electronic television was created by a 21 year old inventor named philo taylor Farnsworth.
Videoconferencing – The first concepts of video conferencing were developed in the 1870s, as part of an extension of audio devices. Today video conferencing is used by many industries, including educators, marketers.
Cell phone/Mobile phone – A mobile phone is frequently called a cellular phone or cell phone. Most mobile phones provide voice communication, short message service(SMS), Multimedia message service(MMS), and newer phones may also provide internet service such as web browsing, instant messaging capabilities and e-mail. The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by john F.Mitchell and martin cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c.2 kilograms.
Radio communication -  
Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich hertz in 1886. The early is the history of technology that produces and uses radio instruments that use radio wave. Within the timeline of radio, many people contributed theory and inventions in what became radio. Radio development began as "wireless telegraphy". In radio communication system, information is carried across space using radio wave. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter.
Microwave Communication -  
Microwave technology was develop during world war II(1939-45) in connection  with secret military radar research. Today , microwave are used parimarily in microwave ovens and communications. Microwave wireless communication is a very effective type of communication. Radio waves are used in this transmission. In this  Communication, two methods are used to transfer data and information. One is satellite method and other is terrestrial method. Terrestrial refers to things related to land or the planet earth. Microwave refer to high frequencies above 300MHz and short wave lengths, at the microwave components depends on the changing electromagnetic fields instead of current in the conductor or voltage across the 2 points a microwave propagated through the line of sight, it is necessary to install repeater station at about 50km interval.
Advantages of microwaves:
Large Bandwidth –Microwaves are used for point to point communication.
Small size Antenna – The antenna size can be smaller as the size of antenna is inversely proportional to the transmitted frequency.
Low power Consumption- As microwave have high frequency thus requires very less power.
Effect of fading – While at low frequency signals, the layers around the earth causes fading of the signal.
Satellite Communication-  
A communication satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals via a transponder a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver  at different locations on earth. Arthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite. We use satellite communication in various thing, so its application are many such as telephone, satellite television is used for television, internet, radio, military etc. In a satellite communication, the satellite which is stationed in the space system for transmission of signals plays a signification role. The satellite are generally equipped with an antenna and transponder to facilitate the communication process. The satellite majorly works on the solar power which is continuously received by the satellite solar panels.
Uses of satellite Communications;
  • Traditional Telecommunication
  • Cellular
  • Television signals
  • Marine communication
Fiber optical communication- 
Fiber-optical communication is a system in which information is sent from one people to another via optical fibers as light points. Light develops an electromagnetic wave carrier that methodically carries the information along.  It was first developed in the 1970,fiber optical have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the information age.  Fiber optic communication is not new- it was invented by Alexander Graham bell in 1880 for the Photo phone. Because of its advantage over electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communication in core network in the developed world.
Advantage of fiber optic communication;
  • Bandwidth
  • Low power loss
  • Size
  • Flexibility
  • Cost
  • Security

Conclusion –: 
Information and communication Technology(ICT) tools and techniques utilization has been spread widely in every work of human being and all kinds of organizations. ICT has improved the library services than traditional one and now become the demand of the users as well as organization to fulfill the necessary requirements on time. With the use of ICT, library professionals role has been change totally. The provision and the use of information and communication technology is a part and parcel of the entire system, to the student, information and professional and the institution. Communication for technology provides those who have communication challenges a way of expressing their wants and needs. People of all age and abilities can use and benefit from using communication technology. The biggest challenges facing the library profession today is preparing the professionals to use technology effectively. It can be said that the library and information professional communities are being affected by a range of ICT development and so find their roles changing worldwide.  Information Communication Technology helps people many ways. Communication technology helps people easily communicate to other and makes life more convenient. Although communication brings a lot of benefits. So, people must responsible while using the communication technology properly.
Reference –
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